Clinical considerations in individuals with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin PI*SZ genotype.

McElvaney, Gerard N, Sandhaus, Robert A, Miravitlles, Marc, Turino, Gerard M, Seersholm, Niels, Wencker, Marion and Stockley, Robert A (2020) Clinical considerations in individuals with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin PI*SZ genotype. The European respiratory journal. ISSN 1399-3003.

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Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD), characterised by reduced levels or functionality of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT), is a significantly under-diagnosed genetic condition that predisposes individuals to lung and liver disease. Most of the available data on AATD is based on the most common, severe deficiency genotype (PI*ZZ); therefore, treatment and monitoring requirements for individuals with the PI*SZ genotype, which is associated with a less severe AAT deficiency, are not as clear. Recent genetic data suggest the PI*SZ genotype may be significantly more prevalent than currently thought, due in part to less frequent identification in the clinic and less frequent reporting in registries. Intravenous AAT therapy, the only specific treatment for patients with AATD, has been shown to slow disease progression in PI*ZZ individuals; however, there is no specific evidence for AAT therapy in PI*SZ individuals, and it remains unclear whether AAT therapy should be considered in these patients. The present narrative review evaluates the available data on the PI*SZ genotype, including genetic prevalence, the age of diagnosis and development of respiratory symptoms compared with PI*ZZ individuals, and the impact of factors such as index non-index identification and smoking history. The relevance of the putative 11 µM "protective threshold" for AAT therapy and the risk of liver disease in PI*SZ individuals is also explored. The purpose of this review is to identify open research questions in this area, with the aim of optimising the future identification and management of PI*SZ individuals.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WF Respiratory system. Respiratory medicine
WI Digestive system. Gastroenterology
Divisions: Planned IP Care > Respiratory Medicine
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Depositing User: Jamie Edgar
Date Deposited: 23 Mar 2020 14:09
Last Modified: 23 Mar 2020 14:09

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