Treatment-resistant hypertension in the hemodialysis population: a 44-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-based study.

Mallamaci, Francesca, Torino, Claudia, Sarafidis, Pantelis, Ekart, Robert, Loutradis, Charalampos, Siamopoulos, Kostas, Del Giudice, Antonio, Aucella, Filippo, Morosetti, Massimo, Raptis, Vasilios, Bikos, Athanasios, Papagianni, Aikaterini, Balafa, Olga, Pappas, Efthymios, Tripepi, Rocco, Marino, Carmela, Tripepi, Giovanni, Ferro, Charles J, Malyszko, Jolanta, Dekker, Friedo W, Jager, Kitty J, London, Gérard M and Zoccali, Carmine (2020) Treatment-resistant hypertension in the hemodialysis population: a 44-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-based study. Journal of hypertension. ISSN 1473-5598.

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Uncontrolled hypertension notwithstanding the use of at least three drugs or hypertension controlled with at least four drugs, the widely accepted definition of treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH), is considered as a common problem in the hemodialysis population. However, to date there is no estimate of the prevalence of this condition in hemodialysis patients.


We estimated the prevalence of TRH by 44-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in 506 hemodialysis patients in 10 renal units in Europe included in the registry of the European Renal and Cardiovascular Medicine (EURECAm,), a working group of the European Association, European Dialysis and Transplantation Association (ERA EDTA). In a sub-group of 114 patients, we tested the relationship between fluid overload (Body Composition monitor) and TRH.


The prevalence of hypertension with 44-h ABPM criteria was estimated at 85.6% (434 out of 506 patients). Of these, 296 (58%) patients were classified as uncontrolled hypertensive patients by 44-h ABPM criteria (≥130/80 mmHg). Two hundred and thirteen patients had uncontrolled hypertension while on treatment with less than three drugs and 210 patients were normotensive while on drug therapy (n = 138) or off drug treatment (n = 72). The prevalence of TRH was 24% (93 among 386 treated hypertensive patients). The prevalence of predialysis fluid overload was 33% among TRH patients, 34% in uncontrolled hypertensive patients and 26% in normotensive patients. The vast majority (67%) of hemodialysis patients with TRH had no fluid overload.


TRH occurs in about one in four treated hypertensive patients on hemodialysis. Fluid overload per se only in part explains TRH and the 67% of these patients show no fluid overload.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QT Human physiology
WJ Urogenital system. Urology
Divisions: Emergency Services > Renal
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Depositing User: Jamie Edgar
Date Deposited: 24 Jul 2020 14:25
Last Modified: 24 Jul 2020 14:25

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