Organ Restoration With Normothermic Machine Perfusion and Immune Reaction.

Parente, Alessandro, Osei-Bordom, Daniel-Clement, Ronca, Vincenzo, Perera, M Thamara P R and Mirza, Darius F (2020) Organ Restoration With Normothermic Machine Perfusion and Immune Reaction. Frontiers in immunology, 11. p. 565616. ISSN 1664-3224.


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Liver transplantation is the only recognized effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. However, organ shortages have become the main challenge for patients and physicians within the transplant community. Waiting list mortality remains an issue with around 10% of patients dying whilst waiting for an available organ. The post-transplantation period is also associated with an adverse complication rate for these specific cohorts of high-risk patients, particularly regarding patient and graft survival. Ischaemia reperfusion injury (IRI) has been highlighted as the mechanism of injury that increases parenchymal damage, which eventually lead to significant graft dysfunction and other poor outcome indicators. The consequences of IRI in clinical practice such as reperfusion syndrome, primary non-function of graft, allograft dysfunction, ischaemic biliary damage and early biliary complications can be life-threatening. IRI dictates the development of a significant inflammatory response that drives the pathway to eventual cell death. The main mechanisms of IRI are mitochondrial damage due to low oxygen tension within the hepatic micro-environment and severe adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion during the ischaemic period. After the restoration of normal blood flow, this damage is further enhanced by reoxygenation as the mitochondria respond to reperfusion by releasing reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn activate Kupffer cells within the hepatic micro-environment, leading to a pro-inflammatory response and eventual parenchymal cell apoptosis and associated tissue degradation. Machine perfusion (MP) is one emergent strategy considered to be one of the most important advances in organ preservation, restoration and transplantation. Indeed, MP has the potential to rescue frequently discarded organs and has been shown to limit the extent of IRI, leading to suppression of the deleterious pro-inflammatory response. This immunomodulation reduces the prevalence of allograft rejection, the use of immunosuppression therapy and minimizes post-transplant complications. This review aims to update the current knowledge of MP with a focus on normothermic machine liver perfusion (NMLP) and its potential role in immune response pathways.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WO Surgery
Divisions: Planned IP Care > General Surgery
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Mr Philip O'Reilly
Date Deposited: 26 Nov 2020 15:37
Last Modified: 26 Nov 2020 15:37

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