Obstacles to Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: Current Perspectives.

Quinn, Mark, Ellis, Paul, Pye, Anita and Turner, Alice M (2020) Obstacles to Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: Current Perspectives. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 16. pp. 1243-1255. ISSN 1176-6336. Available through UHB Open Athens

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Abstract

This review summarizes the current research and outlooks regarding the obstacles to diagnosing and treating early alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). It draws on prior systematic reviews and expert surveys to discover precisely what difficulties exist in early diagnosis and treatment of AATD and elucidate potential solutions to ease these difficulties. The perceived rarity of AATD may translate to a condition poorly understood by primary care physicians, and even many respiratory physicians, which results in opportunities for diagnosis being missed, especially in mild or asymptomatic patients. There are diagnostic techniques involving biomarkers and home testing methods which could improve the rate of early diagnosis. With respect to treatment, AATD involves treating two separate pathologies, lung disease and liver disease. The only specific AATD treatment, augmentation therapy, has proven ability in treating lung disease but not liver disease. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) synthesized in the liver can form damaging polymers that also result in reduced circulating AAT levels and, whilst liver transplantation is used to effectively treat AATD, it is inappropriate in early disease. Novel therapeutic areas such as gene editing and increasing autophagy are therefore being researched as future treatments. Ultimately, diagnosis and treatment are intrinsically linked in AATD, with earlier diagnosis leading to better treatment options and thus better patient outcomes.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Available through UHB Open Athens
Subjects: WF Respiratory system. Respiratory medicine
WI Digestive system. Gastroenterology
Divisions: Planned IP Care > Respiratory Medicine
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Beth Connors
Date Deposited: 05 Jan 2021 09:42
Last Modified: 05 Jan 2021 09:42
URI: http://www.repository.uhblibrary.co.uk/id/eprint/3798

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