Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK.

Voysey, Merryn, Clemens, Sue Ann Costa, Madhi, Shabir A, Weckx, Lily Y, Folegatti, Pedro M, Aley, Parvinder K, Angus, Brian, Baillie, Vicky L, Barnabas, Shaun L, Bhorat, Qasim E, Bibi, Sagida, Briner, Carmen, Cicconi, Paola, Collins, Andrea M, Colin-Jones, Rachel, Cutland, Clare L, Darton, Thomas C, Dheda, Keertan, Duncan, Christopher J A, Emary, Katherine R W, Ewer, Katie J, Fairlie, Lee, Faust, Saul N, Feng, Shuo, Ferreira, Daniela M, Finn, Adam, Goodman, Anna L, Green, Catherine M, Green, Christopher A, Heath, Paul T, Hill, Catherine, Hill, Helen, Hirsch, Ian, Hodgson, Susanne H C, Izu, Alane, Jackson, Susan, Jenkin, Daniel, Joe, Carina C D, Kerridge, Simon, Koen, Anthonet, Kwatra, Gaurav, Lazarus, Rajeka, Lawrie, Alison M, Lelliott, Alice, Libri, Vincenzo, Lillie, Patrick J, Mallory, Raburn, Mendes, Ana V A, Milan, Eveline P, Minassian, Angela M, McGregor, Alastair, Morrison, Hazel, Mujadidi, Yama F, Nana, Anusha, O'Reilly, Peter J, Padayachee, Sherman D, Pittella, Ana, Plested, Emma, Pollock, Katrina M, Ramasamy, Maheshi N, Rhead, Sarah, Schwarzbold, Alexandre V, Singh, Nisha, Smith, Andrew, Song, Rinn, Snape, Matthew D, Sprinz, Eduardo, Sutherland, Rebecca K, Tarrant, Richard, Thomson, Emma C, Török, M Estée, Toshner, Mark, Turner, David P J, Vekemans, Johan, Villafana, Tonya L, Watson, Marion E E, Williams, Christopher J, Douglas, Alexander D, Hill, Adrian V S, Lambe, Teresa, Gilbert, Sarah C and Pollard, Andrew J (2021) Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK. Lancet (London, England), 397 (10269). pp. 99-111. ISSN 1474-547X. This article is available to all UHB staff and students via ASK Discovery tool http://tinyurl.com/z795c8c by using their UHB Athens login IDs

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

A safe and efficacious vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), if deployed with high coverage, could contribute to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a pooled interim analysis of four trials.

METHODS

This analysis includes data from four ongoing blinded, randomised, controlled trials done across the UK, Brazil, and South Africa. Participants aged 18 years and older were randomly assigned (1:1) to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine or control (meningococcal group A, C, W, and Y conjugate vaccine or saline). Participants in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group received two doses containing 5 × 10 viral particles (standard dose; SD/SD cohort); a subset in the UK trial received a half dose as their first dose (low dose) and a standard dose as their second dose (LD/SD cohort). The primary efficacy analysis included symptomatic COVID-19 in seronegative participants with a nucleic acid amplification test-positive swab more than 14 days after a second dose of vaccine. Participants were analysed according to treatment received, with data cutoff on Nov 4, 2020. Vaccine efficacy was calculated as 1 - relative risk derived from a robust Poisson regression model adjusted for age. Studies are registered at ISRCTN89951424 and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04324606, NCT04400838, and NCT04444674.

FINDINGS

Between April 23 and Nov 4, 2020, 23 848 participants were enrolled and 11 636 participants (7548 in the UK, 4088 in Brazil) were included in the interim primary efficacy analysis. In participants who received two standard doses, vaccine efficacy was 62·1% (95% CI 41·0-75·7; 27 [0·6%] of 4440 in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group vs71 [1·6%] of 4455 in the control group) and in participants who received a low dose followed by a standard dose, efficacy was 90·0% (67·4-97·0; three [0·2%] of 1367 vs 30 [2·2%] of 1374; p=0·010). Overall vaccine efficacy across both groups was 70·4% (95·8% CI 54·8-80·6; 30 [0·5%] of 5807 vs 101 [1·7%] of 5829). From 21 days after the first dose, there were ten cases hospitalised for COVID-19, all in the control arm; two were classified as severe COVID-19, including one death. There were 74 341 person-months of safety follow-up (median 3·4 months, IQR 1·3-4·8): 175 severe adverse events occurred in 168 participants, 84 events in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group and 91 in the control group. Three events were classified as possibly related to a vaccine: one in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group, one in the control group, and one in a participant who remains masked to group allocation.

INTERPRETATION

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 has an acceptable safety profile and has been found to be efficacious against symptomatic COVID-19 in this interim analysis of ongoing clinical trials.

FUNDING

UK Research and Innovation, National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR), Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Lemann Foundation, Rede D'Or, Brava and Telles Foundation, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Thames Valley and South Midland's NIHR Clinical Research Network, and AstraZeneca.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article is available to all UHB staff and students via ASK Discovery tool http://tinyurl.com/z795c8c by using their UHB Athens login IDs
Subjects: W Public health. Health statistics. Occupational health. Health education
WC Communicabable diseases
WC Communicabable diseases > WC680 Tropical medicine
WF Respiratory system. Respiratory medicine
WS Paediatrics. Child health
Divisions: Clinical Support > Infectious Diseases
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Jamie Edgar
Date Deposited: 10 Feb 2021 12:47
Last Modified: 10 Feb 2021 12:47
URI: http://www.repository.uhblibrary.co.uk/id/eprint/3965

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