Validation of a combined ELISA to detect IgG, IgA and IgM antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in mild or moderate non-hospitalised patients.

Cook, A M, Faustini, S E, Williams, L J, Cunningham, A F, Drayson, M T, Shields, A M, Kay, D, Taylor, L, Plant, T, Huissoon, Aarnoud P, Wallis, G, Beck, Sarah C, Jossi, S E, Perez-Toledo, M, Newby, M L, Allen, J D, Crispin, M, Harding, S and Richter, A G (2021) Validation of a combined ELISA to detect IgG, IgA and IgM antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in mild or moderate non-hospitalised patients. Journal of immunological methods, 494. p. 113046. ISSN 1872-7905.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Frequently SARS-CoV-2 results in mild or moderate disease with potentially lower concentrations of antibodies compared to those that are hospitalised. Here, we validated an ELISA using SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike glycoprotein, with targeted detection of IgG, IgA and IgM (IgGAM) using serum and dried blood spots (DBS) from adults with mild or moderate disease.

METHODS

Targeting the SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike, a combined anti-IgG, IgA and IgM serology ELISA assay was developed using 62 PCR-confirmed non-hospitalised, mild or moderate COVID-19 samples, ≥14 days post symptom onset and 624 COVID-19 negative samples. The assay was validated using 73 PCR-confirmed non-hospitalised, mild or moderate COVID-19 samples, ≥14 days post symptom onset and 359 COVID-19 negative serum samples with an additional 81 DBSs. The assay was further validated in 226 PCR-confirmed non-hospitalised, mild or moderate COVID-19 samples, ≥14 days post symptom onset and 426 COVID-19 negative clinical samples.

RESULTS

A sensitivity and specificity of 98.6% (95% CI, 92.6-100.0), 98.3% (95% CI, 96.4-99.4), respectively, was observed following validation of the SARS-CoV-2 ELISA. No cross-reactivities with endemic coronaviruses or other human viruses were observed, and no change in results were recorded for interfering substances. The assay was stable at temperature extremes and components were stable for 15 days once opened. A matrix comparison showed DBS to correlate with serum results. Clinical validation of the assay reported a sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI, 90.9-97.2%) and a specificity of 98.4% (95% CI, 96.6-99.3%).

CONCLUSIONS

The human anti-IgGAM SARS-CoV-2 ELISA provides accurate and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in non-hospitalised adults with mild or moderate disease. The use of dried blood spots makes the assay accessible to the wider community.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QW Microbiology. Immunology
Divisions: Clinical Support > Immunology
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Depositing User: Mr Philip O'Reilly
Date Deposited: 07 Apr 2021 11:15
Last Modified: 07 Apr 2021 11:15
URI: http://www.repository.uhblibrary.co.uk/id/eprint/4165

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